check out /ˈtʃek aʊt/
settle one's hotel bill before leaving.
• (North American informal) die.
check out someone/something
1 establish the truth or inform oneself about someone or something: they decided to go and check out a local restaurant.
2 check something out (chiefly North American) enter the price of goods in a supermarket into a cash machine for addition and payment by a customer.
• register something as having been borrowed.
check out /ˈtʃek aʊt/
1 we'll be checking out in the morning: LEAVE, vacate, depart; pay the bill, settle up.
2
the police checked out dozens of leads: INVESTIGATE, look into, inquire into, probe, research, examine, go over; assess, analyze, evaluate; follow up; informal give something a once-over, scope out.
3
she checked herself out in the mirror: LOOK AT, survey, regard, inspect, contemplate; informal eyeball.

trumpery
/ˈtrʌmp(ə)ri/ archaic
noun (plural trumperies)
• worthless nonsense
• attractive articles of little value or use.
• practices or beliefs that are superficially or visually appealing but have little real value or worth.
trumpery /ˈtrʌmp(ə)ri/
adjective
showy but worthless: trumpery jewelry.
• delusive or shallow:
that trumpery hope which lets us dupe ourselves.
ORIGIN
late Middle English (denoting trickery): from Old French
tromperie, from tromper ‘deceive.’
own up to /əʊn ʌp tuː/
admit or confess to having done something wrong or embarrassing: he owns up to few mistakes.
own up to /əʊn ʌp tuː/
in the long run, it's always better to own up to your mistakes: CONFESS, admit to, admit the guilt of, accept blame/responsibility for, tell the truth about, make a clean breast of; informal come clean about.

let someone down /let ˈsəmˌwən daʊn/
phrasal verb
fail to support or help someone as they had hoped or expected:
if I let him down now, I knew he'd never trust me again. / I need you to be on time. Don't let me down this time.
• (let someone/something down) have a detrimental effect on the overall quality or success of someone or something:
the whole machine is let down by the tacky keyboard.
letdown /ˈletdaʊn/
noun
a disappointment or a feeling of disappointment:
the election was a bit of a letdown.
• a decrease in size, volume, or force: letdowns in sales have been frequent and widespread.

account for /əˈkaʊnt fɔːr/
1 give a satisfactory record of (something, typically money, that one is responsible for).
• provide or serve as a satisfactory explanation or reason for:
he was brought before the Board to account for his behavior.
• know the fate or whereabouts of (someone or something), especially after an accident: everyone was accounted for after the floods.
• succeed in killing, destroying, or defeating:
the fifth inning accounted for Lyons, who gave up three back-to-back home runs.
2 supply or make up a specified amount or proportion of:
social security accounts for about a third of total public spending.
account for /əˈkaʊnt fɔːr/
1
they must account for the delay: EXPLAIN, answer for, give reasons for, rationalize, justify.
2
taxes account for much of the price of gasoline: CONSTITUTE, make up, form, compose, represent.

stick up for /stɪk ʌp fɔːr/
support or defend (a person or cause): they pick on her and she won't stick up for herself.
stick up for /stɪk ʌp fɔːr/
after what she did, not even her family would stick up for her: SUPPORT, take someone's side, side with, be on the side of, stand by, stand up for, take someone's part, defend, come to the defense of, champion, speak up for, fight for.

work out /ˈwərk aʊt/
1 (of an equation) be capable of being solved.
• (work out at) be calculated at:
the losses work out at $2.94 a share.
2 have a good or specified result, be successful:
things don't always work out that way / Our plan worked out fine.
3 engage in vigorous physical exercise or training, typically at a gym:
I work out at the gym three times a week.
work out (something)
1 solve a sum or determine an amount by calculation. We have to work out the total cost before we buy the house.
• solve or find the answer to something:
I couldn't work out whether it was a band playing or a record.
2 plan or devise something in detail:
work out a seating plan.
work out /ˈwərk aʊt/
1 the bill works out to $50: AMOUNT TO, add up to, come to, total.
2
my idea worked out: SUCCEED, work out, turn out well, go as planned, get results, be effective; informal come off, pay off, do/turn the trick. ANTONYMS fail.
3
things didn't work out the way she planned: END UP, turn out, go, come out, develop; happen, occur; informal pan out.
4
he works out at the local gym: EXERCISE, train.
5
work out what you can afford: CALCULATE, compute, determine, reckon (up).
6
I'm trying to work out what she meant: UNDERSTAND, comprehend, sort out, make sense of, get to the bottom of, make head(s) or tail(s) of, unravel, decipher, decode, puzzle out; informal figure out.
7
they worked out a plan: DEVISE, formulate, draw up, put together, develop, construct, arrange, organize, contrive, concoct; hammer out, negotiate.

look forward to + ing /lʊk ˈfɔːrwərd tuː/
await eagerly:
we look forward to seeing you.
I'm looking forward to meeting him.
look forward to + object /lʊk ˈfɔːrwərd tuː/
I'm really looking forward to my birthday.
We can only
look forward to a time when such measures will no longer be needed.
look forward to
I look forward to Rebecca's call: AWAIT WITH PLEASURE, eagerly anticipate, lick one's lips over, be unable to wait for, count the days until.

come along /kʌm əˈlɒŋ/
1 to arrive, or to become available
He decided to give the money to the first stranger who came along.
He told me to work hard and take every opportunity that
comes along.
2 to go somewhere with someone
I’ve never seen a baseball game – do you mind if I come along?
to go somewhere so that you can be with someone who went there earlier
Ray had some work to finish and decided to come along later.
3 [usually progressive] to make progress, or to get better in quality, skill, or health
The building work was coming along nicely
be coming along with something:
How’s Kathleen coming along with her swimming?
come along /kʌm əˈlɒŋ/
1 the puppies are coming along nicely: PROGRESS, develop, shape up; come on, turn out; improve, get better, pick up, rally, recover.
2
come along! HURRY (UP), be quick, get a move on, come on, look lively, speed up, move faster; informal get moving, get cracking, step on it, move it, shake a leg, make it snappy; dated make haste.

carry out /ˈkarɪ aʊt/
1 to do something as specified (a plan, an order, a threat): His orders were carried out to the letter.
2 to perform or conduct (a test, an experiment, a survey):
The company does not carry out tests on animals. / We're carrying out a market research survey.

sign up /sʌɪn əp/
commit oneself to a period of employment or education or to some other undertaking: he signed up for a ten-week Spring course.
• enlist in the armed forces.
• (also
sign something up) conclude a business deal: the company has already signed up a few orders.

brush up on /brʌʃ ʌp ɒn/
improve one's previously good knowledge of or skill at a particular thing:
Brush up on your telephone skills.
My spoken French is quite good, but I would like to brush up a bit.
She took a two-week course to
brush up on her Spanish before she went travelling around South and Central America.

boil down to /bɔɪl daʊn tuː/
be in essence a matter of:
everything boiled down to cash in the end.
boil down to /bɔɪl daʊn tuː/
it all boils down to how much money you're willing to spend: COME DOWN TO, amount to, add up to, be in essence.

take up something /teɪk əp ˈsəmθɪŋ/
1 become interested or engaged in a pursuit: she took up tennis at the age of 11.
• begin to hold or fulfill a position or post: he left to take up an appointment as a secretary.
• accept an offer or challenge.
2 occupy time, space, or attention:
I don't want to take up any more of your time.
3 pursue a matter later or further:
he'll have to take it up with his boss.
• (also take up) resume speaking after an interruption:
I took up where I had left off.
4 shorten a garment by turning up the hem.
take up something /teɪk əp ˈsəmθɪŋ/
1 she took up abstract painting: ENGAGE IN, practice; begin, start, commence.
2
the meetings took up all her time: CONSUME, fill, absorb, use, occupy; waste, squander.
3
her cousin took up the story: RESUME, recommence, restart, carry on, continue, pick up, return to.
4
he took up their offer of a job: ACCEPT, say yes to, agree to, adopt; formal accede to.
5
take the skirt up an inch: SHORTEN, turn up; raise, lift.

get over
/ɡet ˈəʊvər/
1 recover from (an ailment or an upsetting or startling experience): the trip will help him get over Sal's death.
2 overcome (a difficulty).
get something over
1 manage to communicate an idea or theory: the company is keen to get the idea over.
2 complete an unpleasant or tedious but necessary task promptly:
come on, let's get it over with.
get over /ɡet ˈəʊvər/
I just got over the flu: RECOVER FROM, recuperate from, get better after, shrug off, survive.
get something over
we tried to get over this problem: OVERCOME, surmount, get the better of, master, find an/the answer to, get a grip on, deal with, cope with, sort out, take care of, crack, rise above; informal lick.

fall for /fɔːl fər/
informal
1 be captivated by; fall in love with.
2 be deceived by (something):
he should have known better than to expect Duncan to fall for a cheap trick like that.
fall for /fɔːl fər/
1 she fell for John: FALL IN LOVE WITH, become infatuated with, lose one's heart to, take a fancy to, be smitten with/by, be attracted to; informal have the hots for.
2
she won't fall for that trick: BE DECEIVED BY, be duped by, be fooled by, be taken in by, believe, trust, be convinced by; informal go for, buy, 'swallow (hook, line, and sinker)'.

make something up /ˈmeɪk ˈsʌmθɪŋ ǝp/
1 make up for serve or act to compensate for something lost, missed, or deficient: I'll make up the time tomorrow.
• make it up to compensate someone for negligent or unfair treatment: I'll try to make it up to you in the future.
2
make up (of parts) compose or constitute (a whole): women make up 56 percent of the student body | the team is made up of three women and two men.
• complete an amount or group:
he brought along a girl to make up a foursome.
3 put together or prepare something from parts or ingredients:
make up the mortar to a consistency that can be molded in the hands.
• get an amount or group together:
he was trying to make up a party to go dancing.
• prepare a bed for use with fresh bedclothes.
• Printing arrange type and illustrations into pages or arrange the type and illustrations on a page.
4 concoct or invent a story, lie, or plan:
she enjoyed making up tall tales.
make up /ˈmeɪk ǝp/
1 let's kiss and make up: BE FRIENDS AGAIN, bury the hatchet, declare a truce, make peace, forgive and forget, shake hands, become reconciled, settle one's differences, mend fences, call it quits.
2 exports make up 42% of earnings: CONSTITUTE, form, compose, account for.
3
Gina brought a friend to make up a foursome: COMPLETE, round off/out, finish.
4
the pharmacist made up the prescription: PREPARE, mix, concoct, put together.
5
he made up an excuse: INVENT, fabricate, concoct, dream up, think up, hatch, trump up; devise, manufacture, formulate, coin; informal cook up.
6
she made up her face: APPLY MAKEUP/COSMETICS TO, powder; (make oneself up) informal put on one's face, do/paint one's face, apply one's war paint, doll oneself up.

break up /breɪk əp/
1 the meeting broke up: END, finish, stop, terminate; adjourn; recess.
2
the crowd began to break up: DISPERSE, scatter, disband, part company.
3
Danny and I broke up last year: SPLIT UP, separate, part, part company; divorce.
4 informal
the whole cast broke up: BURST OUT LAUGHING, crack up, dissolve into laughter.
break something up
1 police tried to break up the crowd: DISPERSE, scatter, disband.
2
I'm not going to let you break up my marriage: WRECK, ruin, destroy.

look up to /lʊk ʌp tʊ/
have a great deal of respect for (someone): he needed a model, someone to look up to.
look up to /lʊk ʌp tʊ/
Jerry always looked up to his elder brother: admire, have a high opinion of, think highly of, hold in high regard, regard highly, rate highly, respect, esteem, value, venerate.

deal with /diːl wɪð/
verb
[no object] take measures concerning (someone or something), especially with the intention of putting something right:
the government had been unable to deal with the economic crisis.
• cope with (a difficult person or situation):
you'll have to find a way of dealing with those feelings.
• [with adverbial] treat (someone) in a particular way:
life had dealt harshly with her.
• have relations with (a person or organization), especially in a commercial context: the bank deals directly with the private sector.
• take or have as a subject; discuss:
the novel deals with several different topics.
deal with /diːl wɪð/
verb
1
how to deal with difficult children: cope with, handle, manage, treat, take care of, take charge of, take in hand, sort out, tackle, take on; control; act toward, behave toward.
2
the article deals with advances in chemistry: concern, be about, have to do with, discuss, consider, cover, pertain to; tackle, study, explore, investigate, examine, review, analyze.

waver
/ˈweɪvər/
verb [no object]
shake with a quivering motion:
the flame wavered in the draft.
• become unsteady or unreliable:
his love for her had never wavered.
• be undecided between two opinions or courses of action; be irresolute:
she never wavered from her intention.
ORIGIN
Middle English: from Old Norse
vafra ‘flicker,’ of Germanic origin. Compare with wave.
waver
verb
1
the candlelight wavered in the draft: flicker, quiver, twinkle, glimmer, wink, blink.
2
his voice wavered: falter, wobble, tremble, quaver, shake.
3
he wavered between the choices: be undecided, be irresolute, hesitate, dither, equivocate, vacillate, waffle, fluctuate; think twice, change one's mind, blow hot and cold; informal shilly-shally, sit on the fence.

start off
(or start someone/something off)
begin (or cause someone or something to begin) working, operating, or dealing with something: treatment should start off with attention to diet | what started you off on this search?
• (start off) begin a meal: she started off with soup.
start off by -ing
he started off by thanking his hosts
start off on something
she started off on a lengthy explanation

gingerbread /ˈdʒɪndʒərbrɛd/
noun
cake made with molasses and flavored with ginger.
Gingerbread house
A gingerbread house is a model house or similar structure made of gingerbread. The usual material is crisp ginger biscuit made of gingerbread – the ginger nut. Another type of model-making with gingerbread uses a boiled dough that can be moulded like clay to form edible statuettes or other decorations. These houses, covered with a variety of candies and icing, are popular Christmas decorations, often built by children with the help of their parents.

wreath
/riːθ/
noun (plural wreaths /riːðz, riːθs/)
an arrangement of flowers, leaves, or stems fastened in a ring and used for decoration or for laying on a grave.
• a carved representation of a wreath.
• a ring made of or resembling soft, twisted material:
a gold wreath.
• Heraldry a representation of a wreath below a crest (especially where it joins a helmet).
• a curl or ring of smoke or cloud:
wreaths of mist swirled up into the cold air.
ORIGIN
Old English
writha, related to writhe.
wreath
noun
a wreath of dried flowers, a Christmas wreath: garland, circlet, chaplet, crown, festoon, lei; ring, loop, circle.

sled
/sled/ (chiefly North American)
noun
a vehicle, typically on runners, for conveying goods or passengers over snow or ice, either pushed or pulled, or drawn by horses, dogs, or a motor vehicle.
• a small lightweight vehicle, either on runners or having a smooth bottom surface, used for sliding downhill over snow or ice.
• another term for snowmobile.
verb (sleds, sledding, sledded) [no object] (usually go sledding)
travel or slide downhill over snow on a sled:
I know my kids would love to have one last snowstorm to build a snowman and go sledding | the two sledded down a snow-covered hill.
ORIGIN
Middle English: from Middle Low German
sledde; related to the verb slide.
sled
noun
the snowy hills are alive with squealing children on their new Christmas sleds: toboggan, sledge, bobsled, luge, coaster; dogsled; sleigh, cutter.

rebuke /rɪˈbjuːk/
verb [with object]
express sharp disapproval or criticism of (someone) because of their behavior or actions:
she had rebuked him for drinking too much | the judge publicly rebuked the jury.
noun
an expression of sharp disapproval or criticism:
he hadn't meant it as a rebuke, but Neil flinched.
ORIGIN
Middle English (originally in the sense ‘force back, repress’): from Anglo-Norman French and Old Northern French
rebuker, from re- ‘back, down’ + bukier ‘to beat’ (originally ‘cut down wood,’ from Old French busche ‘log’).
rebuke /rɪˈbjuːk/
verb
she never rebuked him in front of others: reprimand, reproach, scold, admonish, reprove, chastise, upbraid, berate, take to task, criticize, censure; informal tell off, give someone a talking-to, give someone a dressing-down, give someone an earful, chew out, ream out; formal castigate. ANTONYMS praise.
noun
Damian was silenced by the rebuke: reprimand, reproach, reproof, scolding, admonishment, admonition, upbraiding, finger-wagging; informal dressing-down; formal castigation. ANTONYMS compliment.

CHOOSE THE RIGHT WORD
rebuke, admonish, censure, reprimand, reproach, scold, reprove
All of these verbs mean to criticize or express disapproval, but which one you use depends on how upset you are. If you want to go easy on someone, you can
admonish or reproach, both of which indicate mild and sometimes kindly disapproval. To admonish is to warn or counsel someone, usually because a duty has been forgotten or might be forgotten in the future (admonish her about leaving the key in the lock), while reproach also suggests mild criticism aimed at correcting a fault or pattern of misbehavior (he was reproved for his lack of attention in class). If you want to express your disapproval formally or in public, use censure or reprimand. You can censure someone either directly or indirectly (the judge censured the lawyer for violating courtroom procedures; a newspaper article that censured “deadbeat dads”), while reprimand suggests a direct confrontation (reprimanded by his parole officer for leaving town without reporting his whereabouts). If you're irritated enough to want to express your disapproval quite harshly and at some length, you can scold (to scold a child for jaywalking). Rebuke is the harshest word of this group, meaning to criticize sharply or sternly, often in the midst of some action (rebuke a carpenter for walking across an icy roof).

trick /trɪk/
noun
1
he's capable of any mean trick | their clever little trick cost us $500: stratagem, ploy, ruse, scheme, device, maneuver, contrivance, machination, artifice, wile, dodge; deceit, deception, trickery, subterfuge, chicanery, swindle, hoax, fraud, confidence trick; informal con, setup, rip-off, game, scam, sting, flimflam, bunco; archaic shift, fetch, rig.
2
I think she's playing a trick on us: practical joke, joke, prank, jape, spoof, gag, put-on.
3
conjuring tricks: feat, stunt; (tricks) sleight of hand, legerdemain, prestidigitation; magic.
4
(tricks) the tricks of the trade: knack, art, skills, techniques; secrets, shortcuts.
verb
many people have been tricked by con artists with fake IDs: deceive, delude, hoodwink, mislead, take in, dupe, fool, double-cross, cheat, defraud, swindle, gull, hoax, bamboozle, entrap; informal con, bilk, diddle, rook, put one over on, pull a fast one on, pull the wool over someone's eyes, take for a ride, shaft, flimflam, sucker, snooker; literary cozen, illude; archaic chicane.

PHRASES
do the trick
informal achieve the required result.
every trick in the book
informal every available method of achieving what one wants.
how's tricks?
informal used as a friendly greeting: “How's tricks in your neck of the woods?”
not miss a trick
see miss.
the oldest trick in the book
a ruse so hackneyed that it should no longer deceive anyone.
tricks of the trade
special ingenious techniques used in a profession or craft, especially those that are little known by outsiders.
turn a trick
informal (of a prostitute) have a session with a client.
up to one's (old) tricks
informal misbehaving in a characteristic way.
PHRASAL VERBS
trick someone/something out (or up)
(usually be tricked out) dress or decorate someone or something in an elaborate or showy way: a Marine tricked out in World War II kit and weaponry.
ORIGIN
late Middle English (as a noun): from an Old French dialect variant of
triche, from trichier ‘deceive,’ of unknown origin. Current senses of the verb date from the mid 16th century.

fetch /fetʃ/
verb [with object]
1 go for and then bring back (someone or something) for someone:
he ran to fetch help | [with two objects] : she fetched me a cup of tea.
archaic bring forth (blood or tears): kind offers fetched tears from me.
archaic take a (breath); heave (a sigh).
2 achieve (a particular price) when sold:
the land could fetch over a million pounds.
3 [with two objects]
informal inflict (a blow or slap) on (someone): that brute Cullam fetched him a wallop.
4
informal, dated cause great interest or delight in (someone): that air of his always fetches women.
PHRASES
fetch and carry
perform a succession of menial tasks for someone as if one was their servant.
PHRASAL VERBS
fetch up
informal arrive or come to rest somewhere, typically by accident or unintentionally: all four of them fetched up in the saloon bar of the Rose and Crown.
ORIGIN
Old English
fecc(e)an, variant of fetian, probably related to fatian ‘grasp’, of Germanic origin and related to German fassen .
fetch /fetʃ/
verb
1
he went to fetch a doctor: (go and) get, go for, call for, summon, pick up, collect, bring, carry, convey, transport.
2
the land could fetch a million dollars: sell for, bring in, raise, realize, yield, make, command, cost, be priced at; informal go for, set one back, pull in.

summon
/ˈsəmən/
verb [with object]
authoritatively or urgently call on (someone) to be present, especially as a defendant or witness in a law court:
the Pope summoned Anselm to Rome.
• urgently demand (help):
she summoned medical assistance.
• call people to attend (a meeting):
he summoned a meeting of head delegates.
• bring to the surface (a particular quality or reaction) from within oneself:
she managed to summon up a smile.
• (summon something up) call an image to mind:
names that summon up images of far-off places.
ORIGIN
Middle English: from Old French
somondre, from Latin summonere ‘give a hint,’ later ‘call, summon,’ from sub- ‘secretly’ + monere ‘warn.’
summon /ˈsəmən/
verb
1
the embassy summoned her: send for, call for, request the presence of; ask, invite.
2
they were summoned as witnesses: serve with a summons, summons, subpoena, cite, serve with a citation.
3
the chair summoned a meeting: convene, assemble, order, call, announce; formal convoke.
4
he summoned the courage to move closer: muster, gather, collect, rally, screw up.
5
summoning up their memories of home: call to mind, call up/forth, conjure up, evoke, recall, revive, arouse, kindle, awaken, spark (off).
6
they summoned spirits of the dead: conjure up, call up, invoke.

spook /spuːk/ informal
noun
1 a ghost.
2 chiefly North American a spy:
a CIA spook.
verb [with object]
frighten; unnerve:
they spooked a couple of grizzly bears.
• [no object] (especially of an animal) take fright suddenly: he'll spook if we make any noise.
ORIGIN
early 19th century: from Dutch, of unknown origin.
spooky /ˈspuːki/
adjective (spookier, spookiest) informal
1 sinister or ghostly in a way that causes fear and unease:
I bet this place is really spooky late at night.
2 chiefly North American (of a person or animal) easily frightened; nervous.
spooky /ˈspuːki/
adjective
informal the old house on the hill is really spooky: eerie, sinister, ghostly, uncanny, weird, unearthly, mysterious; frightening, spine-chilling, hair-raising; informal creepy, scary, spine-tingling.

rig (1)
/rɪɡ/
verb
1 the boats were rigged with a single sail: equip, fit out, supply, furnish, provide, arm.
2
I rigged myself out in black: dress, clothe, attire, robe, garb, array, deck out, drape, accoutre, outfit, get up, trick out/up; informal doll up; archaic apparel.
3
he will rig up a shelter: set up, erect, assemble, build; throw together, cobble together, put together, whip up, improvise, contrive.
noun
1
a CB radio rig: apparatus, appliance, machine, device, instrument, contraption, system; tackle, gear, kit, outfit.
2
the rig of a Civil War cavalry officer: uniform, costume, ensemble, outfit, livery, attire, clothes, clothing, garments, dress, garb, regalia, trappings; informal getup, gear, togs, kit; formal apparel; archaic raiment, vestments.
ORIGIN
late 15th century (in nautical use): perhaps of Scandinavian origin: compare with Norwegian
rigga ‘bind or wrap up.’ The noun dates from the early 19th century.
rig (2) /rɪɡ/
verb
they rigged the election: manipulate, engineer, distort, misrepresent, pervert, tamper with, doctor; falsify, fake, trump up; informal fix, fiddle with.

challenge
/ˈtʃalɪn(d)ʒ/
noun
1 a call to take part in a contest or competition, especially a duel:
he accepted the challenge.
• a task or situation that tests someone's abilities:
the ridge is a challenge for experienced climbers.
• an attempt to win a contest or championship in a sport:
a world title challenge.
2 an objection or query as to the truth of something, often with an implicit demand for proof: a challenge to the legality of the order.
• a sentry's call for a password or other proof of identity.
• Law an objection regarding the eligibility or suitability of a jury member.
3 Medicine exposure of the immune system to pathogenic organisms or antigens:
recently vaccinated calves should be protected from challenge.
ORIGIN
Middle English (in the senses
‘accusation’ and ‘accuse’): from Old French chalenge (noun), chalenger (verb), from Latin calumnia ‘calumny,’ calumniari ‘calumniate.’
challenge
noun
1
he accepted the challenge: dare, provocation; summons.
2
a challenge to his leadership: test, questioning, dispute, stand, opposition, confrontation.
3
it was proving quite a challenge: problem, difficult task, test, trial.

revamp

verb /riːˈvamp/ [with object]
give new and improved form, structure, or appearance to: an attempt to revamp the museum's image | (as adjective revamped) : a revamped magazine.
noun [usually in singular]
an act of improving the form, structure, or appearance of something.
• a new and improved version:
the show was a revamp of an old idea.
revamp
verb
they plan to revamp the kitchen: renovate, redecorate, refurbish, recondition, rehabilitate, overhaul, make over; upgrade, refit, re-equip; remodel, refashion, redesign, restyle; informal do up, give something a facelift, rehab.

duty /ˈdjuːti/
noun
1
she was free of any duty: responsibility, obligation, commitment; allegiance, loyalty, faithfulness, fidelity, homage.
2
it was his duty to attend the king: job, task, assignment, mission, function, charge, place, role, responsibility, obligation; dated office.
3
the duty was raised on alcohol: tax, levy, tariff, excise, toll, fee, payment, rate, countervail; dues.
PHRASES
off duty
I'll be off duty at midnight: not working, at leisure, on leave, off (work), free.
on duty
there is always a supervisor on duty: working, at work, busy, occupied, engaged; informal on the job.
ORIGIN
late Middle English: from Anglo-Norman French
duete, from Old French deu.

glib /ɡlɪb/
adjective (glibber, glibbest)
(of words or the person speaking them) fluent and voluble but insincere and shallow:
she was careful not to let the answer sound too glib.
DERIVATIVES
glibly adverb.
glibness noun
ORIGIN
late 16th century (also in the sense ‘smooth, unimpeded’): ultimately of Germanic origin; related to Dutch glibberig ‘slippery’ and German glibberig ‘slimy.’

glib
adjective
glib phrases rolled off his tongue: slick, pat, fast-talking, smooth-talking; disingenuous, insincere, facile, shallow, superficial, flippant; smooth, silver-tongued, urbane; informal flip, sweet-talking. ANTONYMS sincere.

lopsided /lɒpˈsʌɪdɪd/
adjective
with one side lower or smaller than the other:
a lopsided grin.
• disproportionately weighted in favor of one side over another:
a lopsided competition.
DERIVATIVES
lopsidedly
/lɒpˈsʌɪdɪdli/ adverb.
lopsidedness noun
ORIGIN
early 18th cent.: from lop + side + -ed1.
lopsided
adjective
my gingerbread house is lopsided: crooked, askew, awry, off-center, uneven, out of line, asymmetrical, tilted, at an angle, aslant, slanting; off-balance, off-kilter; informal cockeyed. ANTONYMS even, level, balanced.

lush
/lʌʃ/
adjective
(of vegetation) growing luxuriantly:
lush greenery and cultivated fields.
• very rich and providing great sensory pleasure:
lush orchestrations.
• (of a woman) very sexually attractive:
Marianne, with her lush body and provocative green eyes.
DERIVATIVES
lushly adverb.
lushness noun
ORIGIN
late Middle English: perhaps an alteration of obsolete lash ‘soft, lax,’ from Old French lasche ‘lax,’ by association with luscious.
lush /lʌʃ/
adjective
1
lush vegetation: luxuriant, rich, abundant, profuse, exuberant, riotous, prolific, vigorous; dense, thick, rank, rampant; informal jungly. ANTONYMS barren, meager.
2
a lush, ripe peach: succulent, luscious, juicy, soft, tender, ripe. ANTONYMS shriveled.
3
a lush apartment: luxurious, deluxe, sumptuous, palatial, opulent, lavish, elaborate, extravagant, fancy; informal plush, ritzy, posh, swanky, swank. ANTONYMS austere.

inconspicuous /ɪnkənˈspɪkjʊəs/
adjective
not clearly visible or attracting attention; not conspicuous:
an inconspicuous red-brick building.
DERIVATIVES
inconspicuously /ɪnkənˈspɪkjʊəsli/ adverb.
inconspicuousness /ˌɪnkənˈspɪkjʊəsnəs/ noun
ORIGIN
early 17th cent. (in the sense ‘invisible, indiscernible’): from Latin inconspicuus (from in- ‘not’ + conspicuus ‘clearly visible’) + -ous.
inconspicuous
adjective
the flaw in the carpeting is inconspicuous | wearing inconspicuous street clothes, he escaped through the crowd: unobtrusive, unnoticeable, unremarkable, unspectacular, unostentatious, unshowy, unflashy, undistinguished, unexceptional, modest, unassuming, discreet, hidden, concealed; unseen, in the background, low-profile. ANTONYMS noticeable.

rapport /rəˈpɔːr/ /raˈpɔːr/
noun
a close and harmonious relationship in which the people or groups concerned understand each other's feelings or ideas and communicate well:
she was able to establish a good rapport with the children | there was little rapport between them.
ORIGIN
mid 17th cent.: French, from rapporter ‘bring back.’
rapport
noun
board members fired him for failing to maintain good rapport with the trustees: affinity, close relationship, understanding, mutual understanding, bond, empathy, sympathy, accord.
PHRASES
have a rapport with
she had an instant rapport with animals: relate to, get on (well) with, respond to, sympathize with, feel sympathy with, feel for, identify with, empathize with, connect with, understand, speak the same language as, be in tune with, be on the same wavelength as; informal hit it off with.

downpour /ˈdaʊnpɔːr/
noun
a heavy rainfall:
a sudden downpour had filled the gutters and drains.
downpour
noun
they met when huddled under an awning during a sudden downpour: rainstorm, cloudburst, deluge, shower; thunderstorm, thundershower; torrential/pouring rain.

hacker /ˈhækər/
noun
1 a person who uses computers to gain unauthorized access to data.
• informal an enthusiastic and skillful computer programmer or user.
2 a person or thing that hacks or cuts roughly.
hacker
noun
cybercriminal, pirate, computer criminal, keylogger, keystroke logger;
informal cyberpunk, hacktivist.

crochet /ˈkrəʊʃeɪ, ˈkrəʊʃi/
noun
It is a handicraft/process of creating fabric by interlocking loops of yarn, thread, or strands of other materials using a crochet hook. The name is derived from the French term "crochet", meaning small hook. These are made of materials such as metal, wood, or plastic and are manufactured commercially and produced in artisan workshops. The salient difference between
crochet and knitting, beyond the implements used for their production, is that each stitch in crochet is completed before proceeding with the next one, while knitting keeps a large number of stitches open at a time.
crocheted fabric or items: the bikini is tiny, three triangles of cotton crochet.
verb
crochets, crocheting, crocheted [ with obj. ]
make (a garment or piece of fabric) using
crochet: she had crocheted the shawl herself | [ no obj. ] : her mother had stopped crocheting.
DERIVATIVES
crocheter (noun)
ORIGIN
mid 19th cent.: from French crochet, diminutive of croc ‘hook,’ from Old Norse krókr.


caterpillar /ˈkadə(r)ˌpilər/
noun
1 the larva of a butterfly or moth, having a segmented wormlike body with three pairs of true legs and several pairs of leglike appendages. Caterpillars may be hairy, have warning coloration, or be colored to resemble their surroundings.
• (in general use) any insect larva resembling the larvae of butterflies and moths, especially the sawfly.
2 caterpillar track or tread (trademark) an articulated steel band passing around the wheels of a vehicle for travel on rough ground.
• a vehicle with caterpillar tracks.
ORIGIN

late Middle English: perhaps from a variant of Old French chatepelose, literally ‘hairy cat’ influenced by obsolete piller‘ravager’. The association with “cat” is found in other languages, e.g., Swiss German Teufelskatz (literally ‘devil's cat’), Lombard gatta (literally ‘cat’). Compare with French chaton, English catkin, resembling hairy caterpillars.

Spring /sprɪŋ/
noun
1 It's one of the four conventional seasons, following winter and preceding summer. There are various technical definitions of
spring, but local usage of the term varies according to local climate, cultures and customs. When it is spring in the Northern Hemisphere, it will be autumn in the Southern Hemisphere. At the spring equinox, days are approximately 12 hours long with day length increasing as the season progresses. Spring and "springtime" refer to the season, and also to ideas of rebirth, rejuvenation, renewal, resurrection and regrowth. Subtropical and tropical areas have climates better described in terms of other seasons, e.g. dry or wet, monsoonal or cyclonic. Often, cultures have locally defined names for seasons which have little equivalence to the terms originating in Europe.
spring /sprɪŋ/
noun
2 an elastic device, typically a helical metal coil, that can be pressed or pulled but returns to its former shape when released, used chiefly to exert constant tension or absorb movement.

rascal /ˈrɑːsk(ə)/
noun
a mischievous or cheeky person, especially a child or man (typically used in an affectionate way).
DERIVATIVES
rascality
/rɑːˈskalɪti/ noun (pl. rascalities) .
rascally
/ˈrɑːsk(ə)li/ adjective
ORIGIN
Middle English (in the senses ‘a mob’ and ‘member of the rabble’): from Old French rascaille ‘rabble,’ of uncertain origin.
rascal
noun
the title character is a lovable rascal: scalawag, imp, monkey, mischief-maker, wretch; informal scamp, tyke, horror, monster, varmint; archaic rapscallion.

balloon /bəˈluːn/
noun
1 a brightly colored rubber sac inflated with air and then sealed at the neck, used as a children's toy or a decoration.

2 (also hot-air balloon) a large bag filled with hot air or gas to make it rise in the air, typically carrying a basket for passengers: he set his sights on crossing the Pacific by balloon.
3 a rounded outline in which the words or thoughts of characters in a comic strip or cartoon are written.
4 (also
balloon glass) a large rounded drinking glass, used for brandy and other drinks.
verb [ no obj. ]
1 swell out in a spherical shape; billow:
the trousers ballooned out below his waist | [ with obj. ] : the wind ballooned her sleeves.
• (of an amount of money) increase rapidly:
the company's debt has ballooned in the last five years |
(as adj.
ballooning): ballooning government spending.
• (of a person) increase rapidly and dramatically in weight:
I had ballooned on the school's starchy diet.
2 travel by hot-air balloon:
he is famous for ballooning across oceans.
adjective
resembling a balloon; puffed:
a flouncy balloon curtain.
ORIGIN 
late 16th cent. (originally denoting a game played with a large inflated leather ball): from French ballon or Italian ballone
‘large ball.’

bundle /ˈbʌnd(ə)l/
noun
a collection of things, or a quantity of material, tied or wrapped up together: a thick
bundle of envelopes.
• a set of nerve, muscle, or other fibers running close together in parallel.
• a set of software or hardware sold together.
• (
a bundle) informal a large amount of money: the new printer cost a bundle.
verb
1 [ with obj. ] tie or roll up (a number of things) together as though into a parcel: she quickly
bundled up her clothes.
• (usu.
be bundled up) dress (someone) in many clothes to keep warm: they were bundled up in thick sweaters | [ no obj. ] : I bundled up in my parka.
• sell (items of hardware and software) as a package.
2 [ with obj. ] informal push or carry forcibly: he was
bundled into a van.
• send (someone) away hurriedly or unceremoniously: the old man was
bundled off into exile.
• [ no obj. ] (especially of a group of people) move clumsily or in a disorganized way: they
bundled out into the corridor.
3 [ no obj. ] dated sleep fully clothed with another person, particularly during courtship, as a former local custom in New England and Wales: he would dance at country frolics and
bundle with the Yankee lasses.
PHRASES
a bundle of fun (or laughs)
[ often with negative ] informal something extremely amusing or pleasant: the last year hasn't been a bundle of fun.
bundle of joy
informal a newborn baby.
a bundle of nerves
informal a person who is extremely timid or tense.
ORIGIN
Middle English: perhaps originally from Old English byndelle ‘
a binding,’ reinforced by Low German and Dutch bundel (to which byndelle is related).
bundle
noun
a
bundle of clothes: bunch, roll, clump, wad, parcel, sheaf, bale, bolt; package; pile, stack, heap, mass; informal load.
verb
1 she
bundled up her things: tie, pack, parcel, wrap, roll, fold, bind, bale, package.
2 she
was bundled in furs: wrap, envelop, clothe, cover, muffle, swathe, swaddle, shroud, drape, enfold.
3 informal he was
bundled into a van: push, shove, thrust, manhandle, hurry, rush.

tangle
/ˈtaŋɡ(ə)l/
verb [ with obj. ] (usu. be tangled)
twist together into a confused mass: the broom somehow got tangled up in my long skirt.
• [ no obj. ] (tangle with) informal become involved in a conflict or fight with: I know there'll be trouble if I try to tangle with him.
noun
a confused mass of something twisted together: a tangle of golden hair.
• a confused or complicated state; a muddle.
• informal a fight, argument, or disagreement.
DERIVATIVES
tangly |ˈtaNGlēˈtaNGɡ(ə)lē| adjective
ORIGIN
Middle English (in the sense ‘entangle, catch in a tangle’): probably of Scandinavian origin and related to Swedish dialect taggla ‘disarrange.’

tangle
verb
1 the wool got tangled: entangle, snarl, catch, entwine, twist, ravel, knot, enmesh, coil, mat, jumble, muddle.
2 he tangled with his old rival: come into conflict, dispute, argue, quarrel, fight, wrangle, squabble, contend, cross swords, lock horns.
noun
1 a tangle of branches: snarl, mass, knot, mesh, mishmash.
2 the defense got into an awful tangle: muddle, jumble, mix-up, confusion, shambles.

insight
/ˈɪnsʌɪt/
noun
the capacity to gain an accurate and deep intuitive understanding of a person or thing: this paper is alive with sympathetic insight into Shakespeare.
• a deep understanding of a person or thing: the signals would give marine biologists new insights into the behavior of whales.
• Psychiatry new understanding by a mentally ill person of the causes of their disorder.
ORIGIN
Middle English (in the sense ‘inner sight, mental vision, wisdom’): probably of Scandinavian and Low German origin and related to Swedish insikt,Danish indsigt,Dutch inzicht, and German Einsicht .
insight
noun
1 your insight has been invaluable: intuition, discernment, perception, awareness, understanding, comprehension, apprehension, appreciation, penetration, acumen, perspicacity, judgment, acuity; vision, wisdom, prescience; informal savvy.
2 an insight into the government: understanding of, appreciation of, revelation about; introduction to; informal eye-opener about.

bash
/baʃ/ informal
verb [ with obj. ]
strike hard and violently:
bash a mosquito with a newspaper.
• (
bash something in) damage or break something by striking it violently: the car's rear window had been bashed in.
• [ no obj. ] (
bash into) collide with: the other vehicle bashed into the back of them.
• criticize severely:
a remark bashing the Belgian brewing industry.
noun
1 a heavy blow:
a bash on the head.
2 [ usu. with modifier ] a party or social event:
a birthday bash.
PHRASAL VERBS
bash something out
informal produce something rapidly without preparation or attention to detail.
ORIGIN
mid 17th cent. (as a verb): imitative, perhaps a blend of bang and smash, dash, etc. Sense two of the noun is a 20th-cent. usage.
bash
verb
1
she bashed him with her stick: strike, hit, beat, thump, slap, smack, bang, knock, batter, pound, pummel; informal wallop, clout, belt, whack, thwack, clobber, bop, sock; archaic smite.
2
they bashed into one another: crash into, run into, bang into, smash into, slam into, knock into, bump into; collide with, hit, meet head-on.
3
bashing the government: criticize, censure, assail, attack, condemn, revile, denounce, rail against, cast aspersions on; informal pan, slam, hammer, lay into, tear to pieces, trash.
noun
1
a bash on the head: blow, rap, hit, knock, bang, slap, crack, thump, tap; informal wallop, clout, belt, whack, bonk, thwack, bop, sock.
2
Harry's birthday bash. (social) gathering, (social) function, get-together, affair, celebration, after-party, festivity, reception, at-home frolic, soirée, carousal, carouse, fete; informal shindig, rave, do, shebang, bop, hop, blast, wingding.

mesmerize /ˈmezmərʌɪz/
verb [ with obj. ]
hold the attention of (someone) to the exclusion of all else or so as to transfix them:
she was mesmerized by the blue eyes that stared so intently into her own.
adjective
mesmerizing: a mesmerizing stare.
• archaic hypnotize (someone)
mesmerize
verb
the dancers mesmerized us: enthrall, hold spellbound, entrance, dazzle, bedazzle, bewitch, charm, captivate, enchant, fascinate, transfix, grip, hypnotize.

mug 1 /məɡ/ Am /mʌɡ/ Br
noun
1 a large cup, typically cylindrical and with a handle and used without a saucer.
• the contents of a mug:
a large mug of tea vanished in a single gulp.
2 informal a person's face.
3 US informal a hoodlum or thug.
4 Brit. informal a stupid or gullible person.
verb (
mugs, mugged, mugging)
1 [ with obj. ] attack and rob (someone) in a public place:
he was mugged by three men who stole his bike.
2 [ no obj. ] informal make faces, especially silly or exaggerated ones, before an audience or a camera:
he mugged for the camera.
PHRASES
a mug's game
informal an activity in which it is foolish to engage because it is likely to be unsuccessful or dangerous:
playing with drugs is a mug's game.
DERIVATIVES
mugful noun (pl. mugfuls)
ORIGIN
early 16th cent. (originally Scots and northern English, denoting an earthenware bowl): probably of Scandinavian origin; compare with Norwegian
mugge,Swedish mugg ‘pitcher with a handle.’
mug
noun
1
a china mug: cup, glass; stein, flagon, tankard; British beaker; archaic stoup.
2 informal
her ugly mug. See face, meaning #1.
verb
informal he was mugged by three youths: assault, attack, set upon, beat up, rob; informal jump, rough up, lay into, do over.

culprit /ˈkəlprət - ˈkəlˌprɪt/
noun
a person who is responsible for a crime or other misdeed.
• the cause of a problem or defect:
viruses could turn out to be the culprit.
culprit
noun
police are doing all they can to catch the culprit: guilty party, offender, wrongdoer, perpetrator, miscreant; criminal, malefactor, felon, lawbreaker, delinquent; informal baddie, crook, perp.
ORIGIN
late 17th cent. (originally in the formula Culprit, how will you be tried?, said by the Clerk of the Crown in England to a prisoner pleading not guilty): perhaps from a misinterpretation of the written abbreviation cul. prist, for Anglo-Norman French Culpable: prest d'averrer notre bille ‘(You are) guilty: (We are) ready to prove our indictment’; in later use influenced by Latin culpa
‘fault, blame.’

shenanigans /ʃɪˈnanɪɡ(ə)nz/
pl.noun informal
1 secret or dishonest activity or maneuvering: widespread financial shenanigans had ruined the fortunes of many.
2 silly or high-spirited behavior; mischief, prankishness:
Halloween shenanigans / the shenanigans of last Friday night / students engaging in youthful shenanigans on the last day of school.
Synonyms
devilishness, hob, impishness, knavery, mischievousness, rascality, roguery, roguishness, waggery, waggishness, wickedness

ORIGIN
mid 19th cent.: of unknown origin.


threshold /ˈθrɛʃəʊld, ˈθrɛʃˌhəʊld/
noun
1 a strip of wood, metal, or stone forming the bottom of a doorway and crossed in entering a house or room.
• [ in sing. ] a point of entry or beginning: she was on the threshold of a dazzling career.
• the beginning of an airport runway on which an aircraft is attempting to land.
2 the magnitude or intensity that must be exceeded for a certain reaction, phenomenon, result, or condition to occur or be manifested: nothing happens until the signal passes the threshold | [ as modifier ] : a threshold level.
• the maximum level of radiation or a concentration of a substance considered to be acceptable or safe: their water would meet the safety threshold of 50 milligrams of nitrates per liter.
• Physiology & Psychology a limit below which a stimulus causes no reaction: everyone has a different pain threshold.
• a level, rate, or amount at which something comes into effect: the tax threshold has risen to $10,492 of adjusted gross income.
ORIGIN
Old English therscold, threscold; related to German dialect Drischaufel; the first element is related to thresh (in a Germanic sense ‘tread’), but the origin of the second element is unknown.
threshold
noun
1 the threshold of the church: doorstep, doorway, entrance, entry, door, gate, gateway, portal, doorsill.
2 the threshold of a new era: start, beginning, commencement, brink, verge, cusp, dawn, inception, day one, opening, debut; informal kickoff.
3 the human threshold of pain: lower limit, minimum.

f
ool /fuːl/
noun
a person who acts unwisely or imprudently; a silly person: what a fool I was to do this.
• historical a jester or clown, especially one retained in a noble household.
• informal a person devoted to a particular activity: he is a running fool.
• archaic a person who is duped.
verb [ with obj. ]
trick or deceive (someone); dupe: he fooled nightclub managers into believing he was a successful businessman | she had been fooling herself in thinking she could remain indifferent.
• [ no obj. ] act in a joking, frivolous, or teasing way: I shouted at him impatiently to stop fooling around.
• [ no obj. ] (fool around) chiefly N. Amer. engage in casual or extramarital sexual activity.
adjective [ attrib. ] informal
foolish or silly: that damn fool waiter.
April Fools' Day (sometimes called April Fool's Day or All Fools' Day) is celebrated every year on 1 April by playing practical jokes and spreading hoaxes. The jokes and their victims are called April fools. People playing April Fool joke expose their prank shouting April Fool. Some newspapers, magazines, and other published media report fake stories, which are usually explained the next day or below the news section in small letters. Although popular since the 19th century, the day is not a public holiday in any country.
Comparable prank days
28 December
the equivalent day in Spain and Latin-America, is also the Christian day of celebration of the "Day of the Holy Innocents". The Christian celebration is a holiday in its own right, a religious one, but the tradition of pranks is not, though the latter is observed yearly. After somebody plays a joke or a prank on somebody else, the joker usually cries out, in some regions of Ibero-America: Inocente palomita que te dejaste engañar ("You innocent little dove that let yourself be fooled").
In Mexico, the phrase is
¡Inocente para siempre! which means "Innocent forever!". In Argentina and Uruguay, the prankster says ¡Que la inocencia te valga!, which roughly translates as a piece of advice on not to be as gullible as the victim of the prank. In Spain, it is common to say just ¡Inocente! (which in Spanish can mean "Innocent!", but also "Gullible!").
Nevertheless, on the Spanish island of
Minorca, Dia d'enganyar ("Fooling day") is celebrated on 1 April because Menorca was a British possession during part of the 18th century. In Brazil, the "Dia da mentira" ("Day of the lie") is also celebrated on 1 April.
ORIGIN
Middle English: from Old French fol ‘fool, foolish,’ from Latin follis ‘bellows, bag,’ by extension ‘empty-headed person’; compare with fils, follis.



mistletoe /ˈmɪs(ə)ltəʊ/
noun
a leathery-leaved parasitic plant which grows on apple, oak, and other broadleaf trees and bears white glutinous berries in winter.
Cultural References
Mistletoe is relevant to several cultures. It is associated with Western Christmas as a decoration, under which lovers are expected to kiss. The reasons for this are less than clear. It is clear that Mistletoe has played an important role in Druidic Mythology. Most interesting is the Ritual of Oak and Mistletoe.
In Norse Mythology, Loki tricked the blind god Hodur into murdering Balder with an arrow made of Mistletoe, being the only plant to which Balder was vulnerable. Some versions of the story have
mistletoe becoming a symbol of peace and friendship to compensate for its part in the murder.
Mistletoe continued to be associated with fertility and vitality through the Middle Ages, and by the 18th century it had also become incorporated into Christmas celebrations around the world. The serving class of Victorian England is credited with first recording the tradition of kissing underneath the mistletoe. The tradition dictated that a man was allowed to kiss any woman standing underneath mistletoe, and that bad luck would befall any woman who refused the kiss. One variation on the tradition stated that with each kiss a berry was to be plucked from the mistletoe, and the kissing must stop after all the berries had been removed.
ORIGIN
Old English misteltān, from mistel‘mistletoe’ (of Germanic origin, related to Dutch mistel and German Mistel) + tān‘twig’.


slant /slɑːnt/
verb
slope or lean in a particular direction; diverge or cause to diverge from the vertical or horizontal: [ no obj. ] :
a plowed field slanted up to the skyline | [ with obj. ] : slant your skis as you turn to send up a curtain of water.
• (especially of light or shadow) fall in an oblique direction:
the early sun slanted across the mountains.
• [ with obj. ] (often as adj.
slanted) present or view (information) from a particular angle, especially in a biased or unfair way: slanted news coverage.
noun
1 [ in sing. ] a sloping position:
the hedge grew at a slant | cut flower stems on the slant.
2 a particular point of view from which something is seen or presented:
a new slant on science.
adjective [ attrib. ]
sloping:
slant pockets.
ORIGIN
late Middle English: variant of dialect
slent, of Scandinavian origin, probably influenced by aslant.
slant
verb
1
the floor was slanting: slope, tilt, incline, be at an angle, tip, cant, lean, dip, pitch, shelve, list, bank.
2
their findings were slanted in our favor: bias, distort, twist, skew, weight, give a bias to.
noun
1
the slant of the roof: slope, incline, tilt, gradient, pitch, angle, cant, camber, inclination.
2
a political slant: point of view, viewpoint, standpoint, stance, angle, perspective, approach, view, attitude, position; bias, leaning.

footage /ˈfʊtɪdʒ/
noun
1 a length of film made for movies or television:
film footage of the riot.
2 size or length measured in feet:
the square footage of the room.
Filmmaking and Video Production
In filmmaking and video production, footage is the raw, unedited material as it had been originally filmed by movie camera or recorded by a video camera which usually must be edited to create a motion picture, video clip, television show or similar completed work. More loosely, footage can also refer to all sequences used in film and video editing, such as special effects and archive material. Since the term originates in film, footage is only used for recorded images, such as film stock, videotapes or digitized clips – on live television, the signals from video cameras are called sources instead.
Origin
The origin of the term
"footage" is that early 35 mm silent film has traditionally been measured in feet and frames; the fact that film was measured by length in cutting rooms, and that there are 16 frames (4-perf film format) in a foot of 35 mm film which roughly represented 1 second of silent film, made footage a natural unit of measure for film. The term then became used figuratively to describe moving image material of any kind. Television footage, especially news footage, is often traded between television networks, but good footage usually commands a high price. The actual sum depends on duration, age, size of intended audience, duration of licensing and other factors. Amateur film footage of current events can also often fetch a high price on the market – scenes shot inside the World Trade Center during the September 11, 2001 attacks were reportedly sold for US$45,000. Sometimes film projects will also sell or trade footage, usually second unit material not used in the final cut. For example, the end of the non-director's cut version of Blade Runner used landscape views that were originally shot for The Shining before the script was modified after shooting had finished.

thread
/θred/
noun
1 a long, thin strand of cotton, nylon, or other fibers used in sewing or weaving.
• cotton, nylon, or other fibers spun into long, thin strands and used for sewing.
• (
threads) informal, chiefly N. Amer. clothes.
2 a thing resembling a
thread in length or thinness, in particular:
• chiefly literary a long, thin line or piece of something:
the river was a thread of silver below them.
• a theme or characteristic, typically forming one of several, running throughout a situation or piece of writing:
a common thread running through the scandals was the failure to conduct audits.
3 a group of linked messages posted on an Internet forum that share a common subject or theme.
• a programming structure or process formed by linking a number of separate elements or subroutines, especially each of the tasks executed concurrently in
multithreading.
4 (also screw
thread)a helical ridge on the outside of a screw, bolt, etc., or on the inside of a cylindrical hole, to allow two parts to be screwed together.
verb [ with obj. ]
1 pass a
thread through the eye of (a needle) or through the needle and guides of (a sewing machine).
• pass (a long, thin object or piece of material) through something and into the required position for use:
he threaded the rope through a pulley.
• [ no obj. ] move carefully or skillfully in and out of obstacles:
she threaded her way through the tables.
• interweave or intersperse as if with
threads: his hair had become ill-kempt and threaded with gray.
• put (beads, chunks of food, or other small objects) together or singly on a thread, chain, or skewer that runs through the center of each one: Connie sat threading beads.
2 (usu. as adj. threaded) cut a screw
thread in or on (a hole, screw, or other object).
thread
noun
1
a needle and thread: cotton, filament, fiber; yarn, string, twine.
2
literary the Fraser was a thread of silver below them: streak, strand, stripe, line, strip, seam, vein.
3
she lost the thread of the conversation: gist, train of thought, drift, direction; theme, motif, tenor; storyline, plot; through line.
verb
1
he threaded the rope through a pulley: pass, string, work, ease, push, poke.
2
she threaded her way through the tables: weave, inch, wind, squeeze, make.
ORIGIN
Old English thrǣd (noun), of Germanic origin; related to Dutch draad and German Draht, also to the verb throw. The verb dates from late Middle English.


clasp
/klɑːsp/
verb [ with obj. ]
1 grasp (something) tightly with one's hand: he clasped her arm.
• place (one's arms) around something so as to hold it tightly:
Kate's arms were clasped around her knees.
• hold (someone) tightly: he clasped Katie in his arms.
• (clasp one's hands) press one's hands together with the fingers interlaced:
he lay on his back with his hands clasped behind his head.
2 archaic fasten (something) with a small device, typically a metal one:
one modest emerald clasped her robe.
noun
1 a device with interlocking parts used for fastening things together:
a handbag with a golden clasp.
• a silver bar on a medal ribbon, inscribed with the name of the battle at which the wearer was present.
2 [ in sing. ] an embrace.
• a grasp or handshake:
he took her hand in a firm clasp.
PHRASES
clasp hands
shake hands with fervor or affection.
ORIGIN
Middle English: of unknown origin.
clasp
verb
1
Ruth clasped his hand: grasp, grip, clutch, hold tightly; take hold of, seize, grab.
2
he clasped Katie in his arms: embrace, hug, enfold, fold, envelop; hold, squeeze.
noun
1
a gold clasp: fastener, fastening, catch, clip, pin; buckle, hasp.
2
his tight clasp: embrace, hug, cuddle; grip, grasp.

goodwill
/ gʊdˈwɪl / (also good will)
noun
1 friendly, helpful, or cooperative feelings or attitude: the plan is dependent on
goodwill between the two sides | [ as modifier ] : a goodwill gesture.
2 the established reputation of a business regarded as a quantifiable asset, e.g., as represented by the excess of the price paid at a takeover for a company over its fair market value.
goodwill
noun
your acts of goodwill have not gone unnoticed: benevolence, compassion, goodness, kindness, consideration, charity; cooperation, collaboration; friendliness, amity, thoughtfulness, decency, sympathy, understanding, neighborliness. ANTONYMS hostility.

drone / drəʊn /
verb [ no obj. ]
make a continuous low humming sound:
in the far distance a machine droned.
• speak tediously in a dull monotonous tone:
he reached for another beer while Jim droned on.
• [ with adverbial of direction ] move with a continuous humming sound:
traffic droned up and down the street.
noun
1 a low continuous humming sound:
he nodded off to the drone of the car engine.
• informal a monotonous speech:
only twenty minutes of the hour-long drone had passed.
• a continuous musical note, typically of low pitch.
• a musical instrument, or part of one, sounding a continuous note, in particular (also
drone pipe) a pipe in a bagpipe or (also drone string) a string in an instrument such as a hurdy-gurdy or a sitar.
2 a male bee in a colony of social bees, which does no work but can fertilize a queen.
• a person who does no useful work and lives off others.
3 a remote-controlled pilotless aircraft or missile.
ORIGIN
Old English drān, drǣn‘male bee,’ from a West Germanic verb meaning ‘resound, boom’; related to Dutch dreunen ‘to drone,’German dröhnen ‘to roar,’ and Swedish dröna ‘to drowse.’
drone
verb
1
a plane droned overhead: hum, buzz, whirr, vibrate, murmur, rumble, purr.
2
he droned on about right and wrong: speak boringly, go on and on, talk at length; intone, pontificate; informal spout, sound off, jaw, spiel, speechify, bloviate.
noun
1
the drone of aircraft taking off: hum, buzz, whirr, vibration, murmur, purr.
2
drones supported by taxpayers' money: hanger-on, parasite, leech, passenger, bottom feeder; idler, loafer, layabout, good-for-nothing, do-nothing; informal lazybones, scrounger, sponger, freeloader, slacker.

fuzzy / ˈfʌzi /
adjective (fuzzier, fuzziest)
1 having a frizzy, fluffy, or frayed texture or appearance:
a girl with fuzzy dark hair.
2 difficult to perceive clearly or understand and explain precisely; indistinct or vague:
the picture is very fuzzy | that fuzzy line between right and wrong.
• (of a person or the mind) unable to think clearly; confused:
my mind felt fuzzy.
• another term for fuzzed.
3 Computing & Logic of or relating to a form of set theory and logic in which predicates may have degrees of applicability, rather than simply being true or false. It has important uses in artificial intelligence and the design of control systems.
fuzzy
adjective
1
her fuzzy hair: frizzy, fluffy, woolly; downy, soft.
2
a fuzzy picture: blurry, blurred, indistinct, unclear, bleary, misty, distorted, out of focus, unfocused, lacking definition, nebulous; ill-defined, indefinite, vague, hazy, imprecise, inexact, loose, woolly.
3
my mind was fuzzy: confused, muddled, addled, fuddled, befuddled, groggy, disoriented, disorientated, mixed up, fazed, foggy, dizzy, stupefied, benumbed.

furthermore / fərðəˈmɔr /
adverb [ sentence adverb ]
in addition; besides (used to introduce a fresh consideration in an argument):
this species has a quiet charm and, furthermore, is an easy garden plant.
furthermore
adverb
furthermore, you'll have access to a better library: moreover, further, what's more, also, additionally, in addition, besides, as well, too, to boot, on top of that, over and above that, into the bargain, by the same token; archaic withal.

debris / ˈdɛbriː, ˈdeɪbriː /
noun
scattered fragments, typically of something wrecked or destroyed:
the bomb hits it, showering debris from all sides.
• loose natural material consisting especially of broken pieces of rock:
a stable arrangement of planets, comets, and debris orbiting the sun.
• dirt or refuse:
clean away any collected dust or debris.
ORIGIN
early 18th cent.: from French
débris, from obsolete débriser ‘break down.’
The first apparent use of the French word in English is in a 1701 description of the army of Prince Rupert upon its retreat from a battle with the army of Oliver Cromwell, in England.
debris
noun
the irrigation channels were blocked with debris: detritus, refuse, rubbish, waste, litter, scrap, dross, chaff, flotsam and jetsam; rubble, wreckage; remains, scraps, dregs, trash, garbage, dreck, junk.

overcast
adjective /ˈəʊvəkɑːst/
1 (of the sky or weather) marked by a covering of gray clouds; dull:
a chilly overcast day.
2 (in sewing) edged with stitching to prevent fraying.
noun /ˈəʊvəkɑːst/
clouds covering a large part of the sky:
the sky was leaden with overcast.
verb /əʊvəˈkɑːst/ (past and past participle
overcast) [ with obj. ]
1 cover with clouds or shade:
the pebbled beach, overcast with the shadows of the high cliffs.
2 stitch over (an unfinished edge) to prevent fraying:
finish off the raw edge of the hem by overcasting it.
overcast
adjective
she feared it was bad luck to be married on an overcast day: cloudy, clouded (over), sunless, darkened, dark, gray, black, leaden, heavy, dull, murky, dismal, dreary. ANTONYMS bright.

toward /təˈwɔːrd/
preposition (also
towards)
1 in the direction of:
I walked toward the front door.
• getting closer to achieving (a goal):
an irresistible move toward freedom.
• close or closer to (a particular time):
toward the end of April.
2 as regards; in relation to:
he was warm and tender toward her | our attitude toward death.
3 contributing to the cost of (something):
the council provided a grant toward the cost of new buses.
adjective /ɔːrd/ [ predic. ] archaic
going on; in progress:
is something new toward?
ORIGIN
Old English tōweard (see to-ward) .
toward, towards
preposition
1
they were driving toward her apartment: in the direction of, to; on the way to, on the road to, en route to.
2
toward evening, dark clouds gathered: just before, shortly before, near, around, approaching, close to, coming to, getting on for.
3
her attitude toward politics: with regard to, as regards, regarding, in regard to, respecting, in relation to, concerning, about, apropos, vis-à-vis.
4
some money toward the cost of a new house: as a contribution to, for, to help with.

stark /stɑːrk/
adjective
1
a stark silhouette: sharp, sharply defined, well focused, crisp, distinct, obvious, evident, clear, clear-cut, graphic, striking. ANTONYMS fuzzy, indistinct.
2
a stark landscape: desolate, bare, barren, arid, vacant, empty, forsaken, godforsaken, bleak, somber, depressing, cheerless, joyless; literary drear. ANTONYMS pleasant.
3
a stark room: austere, severe, bleak, plain, simple, bare, unadorned, unembellished, undecorated. ANTONYMS ornate.
4
stark terror: sheer, utter, complete, absolute, total, pure, downright, out-and-out, outright; rank, thorough, consummate, unqualified, unmitigated, unalloyed.
5
the stark facts: blunt, bald, bare, simple, basic, plain, unvarnished, harsh, grim. ANTONYMS disguised.
adverb
stark naked: completely, totally, utterly, absolutely, downright, dead, entirely, wholly, fully, quite, altogether, thoroughly, truly, one hundred percent.
ORIGIN Old English stearc ‘unyielding, severe,’ of Germanic origin; related to Dutch sterk and German stark ‘strong.’

TV Series
House Stark
Game of Thrones is an American fantasy drama television series created for HBO by showrunners David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. It is an adaptation of A Song of Ice and Fire, George R. R. Martin's series of fantasy novels, the first of which is titled A Game of Thrones.

term /tərm/
noun
each of the periods in the year, alternating with holidays or vacations, during which instruction is given in a school, college, or university, or during which a court holds sessions:
the summer term | fall term starts on Wednesday.
the summer term: session, semester, trimester, quarter; intersession.

career /kəˈri(ə)r/
noun
an occupation undertaken for a significant period of a person's life and with opportunities for progress.
• the time spent by a person while committed to a particular profession:
the end of a distinguished career in the navy.
• the progress through history of an institution or organization:
the court has had a checkered career.
• [ as modifier ] working permanently in or committed to a particular profession:
a career diplomat.
• [ as modifier ] (of a woman) pursuing a profession outside of the home.
verb [ no obj. ]
move swiftly and in an uncontrolled way in a specified direction:
the car careered across the road and went through a hedge.
career
noun
1 a business career: profession, occupation, job, vocation, calling, employment, line, line of work, walk of life, métier.
2 a checkered career: history, existence, life, course, passage, path.
adjective
a career politician: professional, permanent, full-time.

sheen /ʃiːn/
noun [ in sing. ]
a soft luster on a surface:
black crushed velvet with a slight sheen | figurative : he seemed to shine with that unmistakable showbiz sheen.
verb literary
shine or cause to shine softly: [ with obj. ] :
men entered with rain sheening their steel helms | [ no obj. ] : her black hair sheened in the sun.
sheen
noun
we were admiring the sheen of your dog's coat: shine, luster, gloss, patina, shininess, burnish, polish, shimmer, brilliance, radiance.
ORIGIN early 17th cent.: from obsolete
sheen ‘beautiful, resplendent’; apparently related to the verb shine.

issue /ˈɪʃuː/
noun
1
the committee discussed the issue: matter, matter in question, question, point, point at issue, affair, case, subject, topic; problem, bone of contention.
2
the issue of a special stamp: issuing, publication, publishing, printing; circulation, distribution.
3
the latest issue of our magazine: edition, number, copy, installment, volume, publication.
4 Law
she died without issue: offspring, descendants, heirs, successors, children, progeny, family; archaic seed, fruit (of one's loins).
5
an issue of water: discharge, emission, release, outflow, outflowing, secretion, emanation, exudation, effluence; technical efflux.
verb
1
the mayor issued a statement: send out, put out, release, deliver, publish, announce, pronounce, broadcast, communicate, circulate, distribute, disseminate, transmit.
2
the students were issued with new uniforms: supply, provide, furnish, arm, equip, fit out, rig out; Brit. kit out; informal fix up.
3
the smell of onion issued from the kitchen: emanate, emerge, exude, flow (out/forth), pour (out/forth); be emitted.
4
large profits might issue from the deal: result from, follow, ensue from, stem from, spring (forth) from, arise from, proceed from, come (forth) from; be the result of, be brought on/about by, be produced by.
PHRASES
at issue at issue here is what constitutes ‘art’: in question, in dispute, under discussion, under consideration, for debate.
take issue with we'll get nowhere if you have to take issue with everything that anybody says: disagree with, be in dispute with, be in contention with, be at variance with, be at odds with, argue with, quarrel with; challenge, dispute, (call into) question.
ORIGIN Middle English (in the sense ‘outflowing’): from Old French, based on Latin exitus, past part. of exire ‘go out.’
Reflections - Jean Strouse
issues
In a therapy-saturated culture,
issues has come to mean ‘problems'. It started out referring to neurotic problems, as in he's got father issues, or, not even requiring an adjective, she has issues, then devolved into the general: I'm late because I had parking issues. A New York Times article in January 2004 described a brown-headed cowbird that apparently can't sing and engage in visual courtship display at the same time as having multitasking issues. In the software industry, issues is a euphemism for ‘bugs’: rather than acknowledge a bug in one of its products, a company might say, this is a known issue.

gorgeous
/ˈgɔː(r)dʒəs/
adjective
beautiful; very attractive:
gorgeous colors and exquisite decoration.
informal very pleasant: a short but gorgeous hot summer.
DERIVATIVES
gorgeously adverb.
gorgeousness noun
ORIGIN late 15th cent. (describing sumptuous clothing): from Old French gorgias ‘fine, elegant,’ of unknown origin.
gorgeous
adjective
1 a gorgeous couple/woman/man. attractive, beautiful, pretty, handsome, lovely, stunning, striking, arresting, prepossessing, fetching, captivating, bewitching, beguiling, engaging, charming, enchanting, appealing, delightful; sexy, seductive, alluring, tantalizing, irresistible, ravishing, desirable; Scottish bonny; informal hot, easy on the eye, drop-dead gorgeous, cute, foxy, bodacious, -licious; literary beauteous; archaic comely, fair. ANTONYMS ugly.
2 a gorgeous view: spectacular, splendid, superb, wonderful, grand, impressive, awe-inspiring, awesome, amazing, stunning, breathtaking, incredible; informal sensational, fabulous, fantastic.
3 gorgeous uniforms: resplendent, magnificent, sumptuous, luxurious, elegant, opulent; dazzling, brilliant. ANTONYMS drab.

foreboding
/fɔːˈbəʊdɪŋ/
noun
fearful apprehension; a feeling that something bad will happen:
with a sense of foreboding she read the note.
adjective
implying or seeming to imply that something bad is going to happen:
when the doctor spoke, his voice was dark and foreboding.
DERIVATIVES
forebodingly adverb
foreboding
noun
1 a feeling of foreboding: apprehension, anxiety, trepidation, disquiet, unease, uneasiness, misgiving, suspicion, worry, fear, fearfulness, dread, alarm; informal the willies, the heebie-jeebies, the jitters, the creeps. ANTONYMS calm.
2
their forebodings proved justified: premonition, presentiment, bad feeling, sneaking suspicion, funny feeling, intuition; archaic presage.

keepsake
/kiːpseɪk/
noun
a small item kept in memory of the person who gave it or originally owned it.
She was wearing the medal he gave her as a keepsake.

keepsake
noun
a box with concert programs, pressed corsages, and other keepsakes: memento, souvenir, reminder, remembrance, token; party favor, bomboniere.

outspoken
/aʊtˈspəʊk(ə)n/
adjective
frank in stating one's opinions, especially if they are critical or controversial:
he has been outspoken in his criticism.
DERIVATIVES
outspokenly adverb.
outspokenness noun
outspoken
adjective
an outspoken critic of the administration: forthright, direct, candid, frank, straightforward, honest, open, plain-spoken; blunt, abrupt, bluff, brusque.

PHRASES
food for thought something that warrants serious consideration. his study certainly provides food for thought.
PHRASES
food for thought mental stimulation, mental nourishment, something to think about, something to be seriously considered.

heft /heft/
verb [ with obj. ]
lift or carry (something heavy): Donald
hefted another pair of sandbags from the stack.
• lift or hold (something) in order to test its weight: Eileen
hefted the gun in her hand.
noun N. Amer.
the weight of someone or something.
• ability or influence: his colleagues wonder if he has the intellectual
heft for his new job.
ORIGIN late Middle English (as a noun): probably from
heave on the pattern of words such as cleft and weft.
heft
verb
Doug helped us
heft the kegs up into the truck: lift, lift up, raise, raise up, heave, hoist, haul; carry, lug, tote; informal cart, hump, schlep.
noun
the
heft of the urn surprised us: weight, heaviness, bulk.

pitch /pɪtʃ/
noun
A form of words used when trying to persuade someone to buy or accept something: a good sales pitch.

elevator pitch - sales pitch
noun informal, chiefly US
a succinct and persuasive sales pitch.
his sales pitch: patter, talk; informal spiel, line, elevator pitch.

ORIGIN from the idea of having to impress an investor or senior executive during a brief ride in an elevator.

Extra information
In selling technique, a sales presentation or sales pitch is a line of talk that attempts to persuade someone or something, with a planned sales presentation strategy of a product or service designed to initiate and close a sale of the product or service.
A sales pitch is a planned presentation of a product or service designed to initiate and close a sale of the same product or service. A sales pitch is essentially designed to be either an introduction of a product or service to an audience who knows nothing about it, or a descriptive expansion of a product or service that an audience has already expressed interest in. Sales professionals prepare and give a sales pitch, which can be either formal or informal, and might be delivered in any number of ways.

An elevator pitch, elevator speech, or elevator statement is a short summary used to quickly and simply define a profession, product, service, organization, or event and its value proposition.
The name "elevator pitch" reflects the idea that it should be possible to deliver the summary in the time span of an elevator ride, or approximately thirty seconds to two minutes. The term itself comes from a scenario of an accidental meeting with someone important in the elevator. If the conversation inside the elevator in those few seconds is interesting and value adding, the conversation will either continue after the elevator ride, or end in exchange of business cards or a scheduled meeting.
A variety of people, including project managers, salespeople, and policy-makers, commonly rehearse and use elevator pitches to get their points across quickly.

PHRASE
in the nick of time - as usual, the police arrived in the nick of time: just in time, not a moment too soon, at the critical moment, at the last second; informal at the buzzer, just under the wire.